Mt. LeConte (via Alum Cave Trail)
|Trail Features:||Panoramic Views, history, geological|
|Trail Location:||Newfound Gap Road|
|Roundtrip Length:||11.0 Miles|
|Total Elevation Gain:||2763 Feet|
|Avg. Elev Gain / Mile:||502 Feet|
|Highest Elevation:||6593 Feet|
|Trail Difficulty Rating:||16.53 (strenuous)|
|Parking Lot Latitude||35.63014|
|Parking Lot Longitude||-83.44936|
Directions to Trailhead:
From the Sugarlands Visitor Center near
8.7 miles south along Newfound Gap Road to the Alum Cave Trailhead. The
lot will be on your left. Due to the popularity of the Alum Cave Trail,
are two parking lots for this trailhead. To ensure a spot, you may want
here early during peak season, as well as any nice weekend throughout
If ever there was a classic hike in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the Alum Cave Trail to Mount LeConte would certainly qualify. Sure, there are trails in the Smokies that are far longer, that gain more elevation, or have steeper climbs, but the Alum Cave Trail is unmatched in its combination of interesting geological features, history, high adventure and stunning views.
To reach the 6593-foot summit of Mount LeConte, you'll climb 2763 feet and hike 5.5 miles from the Alum Cave trailhead.
The first section of the Alum Cave Trail, up to Arch Rock, is a fairly gentle climb. You'll follow Alum Cave Creek for the first mile. Then, just before reaching Arch Rock, the trail begins to follow the smaller Styx Branch. This section of trail is choked with rhododendron, offering beautiful blooms in early summer.
The night before our hike a strong storm blew through the Smokies, dropping marble-sized hail which still littered the trail that morning. Guests returning from their stay at the LeConte Lodge the night before reported that the top of the mountain received nearly six inches of hail. They also related how they watched an incredible display of lightning below them before the storm moved up and over the mountain.
At just over 1.3 miles from the trailhead you'll reach Arch Rock, the first prominent landmark along the trail. The arch was formed by freezing and thawing which eroded away the softer rock from underneath the harder rock. The trail actually goes under the arch and requires a climb of several steps etched into the stone before exiting at the top.
Roughly 2 miles from the trailhead you'll reach aptly named Inspiration Point, with its commanding views of Little Duck Hawk Ridge to the west, and Myrtle Point on Mt. LeConte towards the northeast. The Eye of the Needle, a hole in the rock at the top of Little Duck Hawk Ridge, can also be seen from Inspiration Point.
A much better view of the Eye can be seen just a tenth of mile further up the trail. While descending the trail on our return trip, we watched two peregrine falcons as they playfully swooshed through the air near the Eye. By the way, Peregrine falcons are also known as duck hawks.
At 2.2 miles you'll reach Alum Cave, which really isn't a cave, but is actually a concaved bluff, about 80 feet in height, and roughly 500 feet in length. During the warmer months of the year water drips off from the ledges above. In the winter these droplets turn into large icicles.
The first two times we hiked to Alum Cave we were forced to dodge icicles falling from the top of the bluff, some as long as 3 feet. Every couple of minutes an icicle would drop down like an incoming missile and explode on the rocks around us. We were forced to time our entry and exits into the cave in order to avoid shrapnel, or worse yet, a direct hit. Needless to say, extreme caution is needed here during such conditions.
Fortunately we didn't have to worry about icicles on this day, but we did have the additional obstacle of several inches of accumulated hail. The last 50 feet to the cave is normally a bit of a slog, even with the help of steps and cables. However, on this day, we were forced to climb through enough hail to completely bury the steps.
It's all worth it though. The views from Alum Cave are great.
Alum Cave has some interesting history behind it as well. The Epsom Salts Manufacturing Company was established at Alum Cave in 1838. Until it was sold in 1854, the company mined epsom salt, which was used by mountain folk to dye homespun clothing a reddish brown.
During the Civil War the Confederate Army mined saltpeter out of the cave, which they used to manufacture gunpowder.
Just past Alum Cave is Gracie's Pulpit. This landmark is named after Gracie McNichol who hiked to Mount LeConte on her 92nd birthday! At roughly 2.6 miles from the trailhead, the pulpit marks the halfway point to Mt. LeConte.
Over the next two miles you'll pass over several rock ledges, many with cable hand rails. A few of these ledges pass small waterfalls that require some negotiation to get around, while continuing to grasp on to the cables. On a hot day, the cool water that inevitably splashes on you is quite welcome.
My first trek up to Mount LeConte was in the dead of winter. The ledges were frozen solid with snow melt, forcing us to hold on to the cables for dear life. During the warmer months, however, these rock ledges usually don't present any problems, unless you have a fear of heights.
The last of these ledges passes just beneath Cliff Top (see photo below).
Once beyond this point the trail flattens out and you enter a spruce-fir forest. Before long, the LeConte Lodge cabins come into view. Before reaching the lodge, at just over 5 miles from the trailhead, the Alum Cave Trail dead-ends into the Rainbow Falls Trail. Turn right here.
A lot people end their hike at the lodge, however, to reach the true summit of Mount LeConte, you still need to walk almost another half-mile.
Before reaching the top of the mountain, the Trillium Gap Trail will branch off to your left at 5.2 miles. The summit, better known as High Top, will be at 5.5 miles. You'll know you've reached the highest point on Mt. LeConte when you've reached the cairn, or pile of rocks, just off the main trail on the right.
At 6593 feet, Mount LeConte is the third highest peak in the Smokies. However, measured from its immediate base to its highest point, Mt. LeConte can be considered the tallest mountain in the Eastern United States, rising 5301 feet from its base near Gatlinburg.
There is considerable controversy over which member of the LeConte family the mountain was named for. Most people, including the USGS, assume that Joseph LeConte, the famous geologist and charter member of the Sierra Club, is the man for whom the mountain was named. However, that claim has been challenged in recent years. The authors of A Natural History of Mount Le Conte, and the Georgia Encyclopedia, both claim the name honors Joseph's older brother, John, who was famous as a scientist and as president of the University of California, at Berkeley.
Unfortunately you won't have any vistas up at High Top. However, there are two places on the mountain that do afford outstanding panoramic views.
One is at Myrtle Point.
To get to Myrtle Point you'll need to walk another 0.4 miles by continuing on the main trail, which has now turned into the Boulevard Trail. Roughly 0.2 miles from High Top, take the fork off the right side of the trail. Myrtle Point is another 0.2 miles from this junction. Myrtle Point provides nearly 360 degree views, and is the best location for sunrises on Mt. LeConte.
The other place to go for outstanding views is known as Cliff Top, which is near the LeConte Lodge. You will have passed two side trails to Cliff Top, on your right, as you made your way up to High Top. Cliff Top is the best location for sunset views.
One of the unique things about the hike up to Mount LeConte is the lodge and overnight cabins at the top.
Hikers have the option of spending the night in the historic cabins which can accommodate about 50 guests a night (you will need reservations well in advance). For more information, visit the LeConte Lodge website.
The idea for the lodge was created when Paul Adams, an enthusiastic hiker and explorer, led an expedition up the mountain with some dignitaries from Washington to show them the rugged beauty of the Great Smoky Mountains, and to help promote the cause for national park status. The group spent the night in a large tent. The following year Adams would build a cabin on that same spot, which eventually led to the establishment of the LeConte Lodge.
Adams is also credited with blazing the Alum Cave Trail up to the summit of Mount LeConte.